What is Claim, Evidence and Reasoning?

Claim Evidence Reasoning sign from Activate Learning

In this activity your students will be introduced to the concepts of claim, evidence and reasoning. The activity is POGIL- like in nature in that no prior knowledge is needed on the part of the students. 

Students work in groups to complete the activity by progressing through four models that each focus on different aspects of claim, evidence and reasoning. The document concludes with a formative assessment that asks students to read through a sample student explanation to a guiding question and identiy the parts of that represent the claim, evidence and reasoning.

Model 1

Students are provided with information they are familiar with, chemistry test data. Questions guide the students to make observations. A guiding question and a definition of a claim help students use the data to make a claim.

Model 1: Students develop a claim statement based upon chemistry test data.

 

Model 2

Students are given a guiding question and an image to consider as they pull together a claim. Students then evaluate a sample claim statement and explain why the statement is not an appropriate claim. 

Model 2: Students make a claim based upon gas data. Then, they evaluate a sample student statement and explain why it is an inadequate claim.

 

Model 3

This model provides basketball free throw statistics for four players as well as a definition for evidence. Students are given two student claims and asked to identify the evidence that supports each claim. 

Model 3: Students are guided to evaluate and use data as evidence to support two sample student claim statements.

 

Model 4

The last model has three parts. First, students are given a list of data comparing Diet Coke and Coke. Students consider that data and identify appropriate claims and the evidence that best supports any of the appropriate claims listed (Model 4A).  

Model 4A: Students consider the data provided and identify appropriate claims and evidence.

 

In the second part of this model, students are provided a guiding question and a definition of the concept of reasoning (Model 4B). Students then identify chemical principles supported by the evidence and pull together a reasoning statement.

Model 4B: Students use a definition of reasoning and their own list of chemical principles that fit the data to write a reasoning statement.

 

Lastly, students read through a sample answer to one last guiding question and identify the claim, the evidence and the reasoning used in the paragraph (Model 4C). Download the student document containing all of the models below.

Model 4C: Students consider the paragraph and identify the claim, evidence and reasoning.

 

 

Log into your ChemEd X account to download the Student Document: 

This activity is a result of the collaboration of LIACTS chemistry teachers.

Preview Image: Activate Learning provides great posters for teacher classrooms with a breakdown of claim, evidence and reasoning. 

NGSS

Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.

Summary:

Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data. Analyze data using tools, technologies, and/or models (e.g., computational, mathematical) in order to make valid and reliable scientific claims or determine an optimal design solution.

Assessment Boundary:
Clarification:

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Summary:

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories. Construct and revise an explanation based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from a variety of sources (including students’ own investigations, models, theories, simulations, peer review) and the assumption that theories and laws that describe the natural world operate today as they did in the past and will continue to do so in the future.

Assessment Boundary:
Clarification:

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Summary:

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories. Construct and revise an explanation based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from a variety of sources (including students’ own investigations, models, theories, simulations, peer review) and the assumption that theories and laws that describe the natural world operate today as they did in the past and will continue to do so in the future.

Assessment Boundary:
Clarification:
Join the conversation.

Comments 5

Amiee Modic's picture
Amiee Modic | Sun, 06/23/2019 - 05:28

Hi Stephanie,

Thanks for sharing this. Not only would it be helpful for teaching students, but the chemistry aspects are simple enough that you could use this to help teachers who are not familiar with Claim, Evidence, Reasoning techniques.

Kristin Gregory's picture
Kristin Gregory | Mon, 06/24/2019 - 08:08

Hi Stephanie,

Great post. I think this activity will be very helpful to my students at the beginning of the year. I've been incorporating a lot more CER/ADI work and students sometimes have a hard time seeing the point of the process at first. I'm looking forward to trying this out! 

John Yohe | Thu, 06/27/2019 - 07:44

Hi Stephanie,

One of my biggest drawbacks when using POGILs is the time required. Working at a Career Technical school, we only have about 35 minutes in a period to get through the lesson.  I am sure I am not the only person looking for short 10 minute POGILS like what you have created here.  It also serves as a good model for other topics.  Thank you for sharing!

Christine Chana's picture
Christine Chana | Fri, 06/28/2019 - 23:58

Hi Stephanie,

This is great.  Is this how you introduce CER in your sophomore chemistry classes?