In the social sciences, 1995 may turn out to be (the figures aren't available yet) the year in which as many women earned Ph.D. degrees as men did. But in the physical sciences, the ratio is still about four to one. Women engineers are only about one seventh as numerous as their male counterparts, while women life scientists are quickly achieving numerical parity with men (about three women for each four men). U.S. minorities, especially blacks, still earn a tiny fraction of all science and engineering degrees, and little progress has been made in the last twenty years. In 1975, blacks earned 3.75% of technical Ph.D. degrees; in 1994, the number was just over 4.0%. With Affirmative Action under pressure on state and federal, political and legal fronts, Science magazine's annual examination of the state of women and minorities in science is timely.