This book is published and distributed as part of the Research Corporation series "of occasional papers on neglected problems in science education". Should we be encouraging our students to prepare for careers in science? If so, what prospects for employment await them, and how ought we best to prepare them? This book has implications for teachers at all levels, but speaks most strongly to the science faculties of our colleges and universities and their associated graduate schools. The marketplace for science and engineering has changed dramatically and drastically in this decade. What are our schools doing differently, in order to adjust to the new realities?