# physical properties

## The Sweeter Side of Density

In this Activity, students determine the density of different sugar solutions (0-50%). They then dye the solutions and devise a method to combine the solutions to make a multi-colored, layered heterogeneous mixture. This Activity could be used in units dealing with measurement or density.

## Sink or Swim: The Cartesian Diver

In this Activity, students assemble a Cartesian diver and observe the effects of changing the pressure and temperature. An optional extension challenges students to cause the diver to hit the bottom in one minute by connecting the diver bottle to a second bottle in which baking soda and vinegar are reacted.

## Meltdown Showdown! Which Deicer Works Best?

In this Activity, students test two chemical deicers, rock salt (sodium chloride) and calcium chloride, to determine which melts ice better and whether it is worth the extra cost to buy a more expensive deicer. They perform three tests comparing the two deicers, predict which will be more effective at melting through a thin disk of ice, and then test their prediction.

## Floating Squares - Hexane and Water

A paper square rubbed with graphite on one side is placed at the interface between two immiscible liquids, hexane and water.

## Vapor Pressure: Molecular Size - Methanol and Ethanol

The vapor pressures of methanol and ethanol are compared using barometers to show the effect of molecular size on vapor pressure.

## Vapor Pressure: Molecular Size - Pentane, Hexane and Heptane

The vapor pressures of pentane, hexane and heptane are compared using barometers to show the effect of molecular size on vapor pressure.

## Vapor Pressure of a Mixture: Raoult's Law

Raoult's Law, which describes the vapor pressure of a mixture, is demonstrated using barometers.

## Vapor Pressure of a Mixture: Raoult's Law - Example 2

Another mixture of decane and diethyl ether is used to demonstrate Raoult's Law. Students are asked to predict the vapor pressure of the mixture.

## Vapor Pressure of a Mixture: Raoult's Law - Example 2 Ending

Another mixture of decane and diethyl ether is used to demonstrate Raoult's Law. Students are asked to predict the vapor pressure of the mixture, and the answer is shown.

## Vapor Pressure: H-bonding vs. dipole-dipole attraction

The vapor pressures of butanol and diethyl ether are compared using barometers to show the effect of hydrogen-bonding on vapor pressure.