# Phases / Phase Transitions / Diagrams

## Vapor Pressure: Molecular Polarity

The vapor pressures of chloromethane and dichloromethane are compared using barometers to show the effect of polarity on vapor pressure.

## Vapor Pressure: Molecular Size - Methanol and Ethanol

The vapor pressures of methanol and ethanol are compared using barometers to show the effect of molecular size on vapor pressure.

## Vapor Pressure: Molecular Size - Pentane, Hexane and Heptane

The vapor pressures of pentane, hexane and heptane are compared using barometers to show the effect of molecular size on vapor pressure.

## Vapor Pressure of a Mixture: Raoult's Law

Raoult's Law, which describes the vapor pressure of a mixture, is demonstrated using barometers.

## Vapor Pressure of a Mixture: Raoult's Law - Example 2

Another mixture of decane and diethyl ether is used to demonstrate Raoult's Law. Students are asked to predict the vapor pressure of the mixture.

## Vapor Pressure of a Mixture: Raoult's Law - Example 2 Ending

Another mixture of decane and diethyl ether is used to demonstrate Raoult's Law. Students are asked to predict the vapor pressure of the mixture, and the answer is shown.

## Liquefaction of Carbon Dioxide - Part 3 of 4

The liquefaction of carbon dioxide is shown. In Part 3, the pressure in the tube continues to rise until the valve is opened, at which point the pressure drops and the liquid changes to solid.

## Liquefaction of Carbon Dioxide - Part 4 of 4

The liquefaction of carbon dioxide is shown. In Part 4, an animation is used to illustrate the correlation between phase and pressure.

## Boiling by Cooling - Demonstration

Water in a sealed flask is made to boil below its normal boiling point by cooling the water vapor in the flask.

## Boiling by Cooling - Counter Example

Cooling the liquid does not cause the water to boil.